Criminality and Costs: The Human Toll of Transnational Environmental Crime
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Published in Lorraine Elliott and William H. Schaedla, eds, Handbook of Transnational Environmental Crime, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2016, pp. 88-106.
The trafficking of environmental commodities poses a significant and immediate risk to people whose natural environment is exploited and affected through criminal activity that derives profit from the illicit trade in natural resources and the illegal disposal of toxic and hazardous chemicals and wastes. The detrimental effects of this unlawful trade are not only felt within the communities where these illegal endeavours take place, but the process by which those involved operate transnationally means that the consequences of environmental crime are experienced globally.
This chapter focuses on the human toll of transnational environmental crime (TEC). It moves beyond consideration of the adverse effect that TEC has on the environment and on natural resources to address its challenges for human security and its cost to human health and safety, losses to state revenue and individual livelihoods, lost development opportunities particularly as they affect people, and damage to the social and cultural fabric of communities.
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